PHYSICAL PROFILE

Geography

Location

The City of Santa Rosa is located within 121Ëš 6’ latitude and 14.19’ longitude. It is bounded on the northwest by Biñan, on the south and southwest by Cabuyao and on the west by the Province of Cavite. On the northeast is Laguna de Bay.

It is bounded on the NE, along lines 1-97 by Laguna de Bay; on the SE, along lines 97-255 by the Cabuyao River; along lines 255-430 by the Municipality of Cabuyao; along lines 430-537 by the Diezmo River; on the SW, along lines 537-544 by the Municipality of Silang, Cavite; on the NW, along lines 544-714 by the Sta. Rosa River; along lines 714-809 by Biñan Estate; on the NE, along lines 809-to the point of beginning by Laguna de Bay.

The western portion of the city occupies the numerous commercial,  industrial, and business establishments,  while the northern portion is primarily composed of residential areas and subdivisions,   schools, industrial zones and various business establishments.

City of Santa Rosa is a first-class city in the province of Laguna, Philippines. It is also known as “The Lion City of the South” and Next Wave City”. With a total area of 54.14 square kilometers (5,415 hectares) City of Santa Rosa represents 3.08 percent of the total land area of the province of Laguna.

Distance

The City of Santa Rosa is located along the south corridor of Luzon or about 40 kilometers south of Manila in the first district of the Province of Laguna.

It is a strategic and ideal place for local and foreign entrepreneurs due to its proximity to Metro Manila. It lies 50 kilometers northwest of Santa Cruz, the capital town of the Province of Laguna.

The City of Santa Rosa is linked to Metro Manila and other southern provinces by the South Luzon Expressway (SLEX), the Manila South Road and the Philippine National Railroad South line. From the SLEX interchange, the City of Santa Rosa can be accessed through a national road leading to the adjacent municipality of Silang, Cavite. Water transport to the nearby coastal town is also available.

POLITICAL SUBDIVISION AND LAND AREA

Barangay Hall Map, City of Santa Rosa, Laguna

Topography

City of Santa Rosa covers a total land area of 5,543 hectares. It is almost entirely plain with 97.89% of its total land area having slopes ranging from 0.0 to 2.5% indicating level to nearly level lands. Only about 114 hectares or 2.06% of the total land area of the city is subject to slight erosion. The area most susceptible to erosion is the south-western tip of Barangay Santo Domingo.

Slope / Soil Erosion

Areas with slopes ranging from 0.0 to 2.5 and are ideal for development. Barangays Sinalhan, Aplaya, Caingin, Market Area, Kaingin, Ibaba, Malusak, Tagapo, Kanluran, Labas, Pooc, Macabling, Balibago, Dila and Dita are in these areas.

Areas characterized by slopes of 5.0 to 18.0. Barangays Pulong Santa Cruz, Don Jose, Malitlit and Sto. Domingo has undulating to rolling terrain.

Only the southwestern portion of Sto. Domingo has rolling to moderately steep slope.

Rock Formation

Two types of rocks are found in Santa Rosa: clastic and alluvium rocks.

Consist of inter-bedded shale and sandstone with occasional thin lenses of limestone, as well as tuff and reworked sandy tuffs and partly tuffaceous shale. These formations are located in the southwestern portion of the municipality where Sto. Domingo, Don Jose, and portions of Pulong Sta. Cruz and Malitlit are situated.

Are found in the remainder of the municipality including the Poblacion.  These rocks consist of an unconsolidated mixture of gravel, sand, silt and clay. Figure 4-2 shows the types of rocks in the city.

Soils

The Lipa Series

The Lipa soils span deep as it provides moderately well to well drainage capabilities.  The terrain is characteristically undulating to rolling.  Both the estimated hydraulic conductivity and infiltration rates are moderate. Specific to the municipality is the Lipa loam type of soil, which has the best physical characteristics among the soil types found in the province of Laguna.

The subsurface soil is characteristically brown to dark-brown in appearance. Other attributes signify it as a mallow, loose and very friable fine granular loam. Its horizontal boundary is smooth and clear.  Subsoil is dark brown clay of a friable fine granular tuffessus material with concretions and an irregular and abrupt boundary. The substratum is highly weathered tuff mixed with tuffaceous gravels and concretions. Its boundary is broken and abrupt.

Sugar cane, fruit trees, upland rice and vegetables thrive in this type of soil.  Lipa loam is found in Malitlit, Don Jose, Sto. Domingo, Pulong, Sta. Cruz and the southern portion of Dita.

The Guadalupe Series

As a surface layer, the soil is very dark brown to nearly black in colour with an average depth of 20 centimeters. The undisturbed soil is hard and compact and bakes easily when dry.  When cultivated, the soil becomes plastic and sticky when wet. When dry, it is coarse, granular and cloddy.

As a subsoil, it is clay, finely granular and sticky when wet. Its color is lighter than that of the surface soil.  The soil is underlain with a zone of volcanic tuff material with crevices filled with dark coloured soil leached from percolation through the surface soil. The substratum is primarily massive volcanic tuff. Its topography is undulating to rolling while erosion is most probable.

Guadalupe series covers about 1,296 hectares or 23.38% of the city’s total land area situated in Dita, Pooc, Labas, Tagapo, Balibago, Market Area, Caingin and in the adjacent portions of Macabling, Pulong Sta. Cruz, Dita, Malusak, Kanluran and Ibaba. Soils of this type are best suited for sugar cane.

The Carmona Series

Carmona series soils are derived from the weathered product of volcanic tuff material. Generally, this series of soils is shallow to moderately deep occurring in rolling to strongly rolling contours evidently eroded with slopes. Drainage properties are poor as hydraulic conductivity is moderately slow. In Santa Rosa, there are two soil types within the Carmona series.  These are Carmona clay loam and Carmona sandy loam.

Carmona clay loam as a surface layer is brown to light grayish-brown clay loam with few concretions possessing a smooth clear boundary. The subsoil is brown to light-grayish brown clay with tufferneous material and concretions with a boundary comparable to that of the surface layer. Substratum is light yellowish brown to light grayish-brown in color. It is highly weathered tuff with concretions. The topography is gently undulating to slightly rolling with drainage from fair to poor.

Carmona Sandy Clay Loam as a surface layer is pale brown to gray sandy clay with plenty of concretions. It is friable when moderately dry. When wet, it is sticky and pinetic. As subsoil, it is pale brown to yellowish gray plastic clay when wet, with plenty of dark brown and reddish brown concretions. When dry, it is hard and compact. As substratum, it is highly weathered tuffaceous material.

The Carmona Series covers 217 hectares or 3.92% of the city’s land area along the western edge of Sto. Domingo and the western portion of Macabling. Soils of this type are suited for rice, sugar cane, corn, sweet potatoes, bananas and various kinds of vegetables.

The Quingus Series

Quingus series is generally very deep. The well-drained soils occur on level to nearly level terrain as well as on river levees of the alluvial landscape. Hydraulic conductivity is moderately slow as the basic infiltration rate is moderate.

Surface soil is typically light brown. At times, it is pale brown when along the river bank. It is usually loose and very seldom compact, except in undisturbed and higher areas. Subsoil is characteristically light brown with heavier materials than the surface soil.

Quingus series, specifically the Quinga fine sandy loam type of soil covers 2.34 hectares of land along the lakeshore in Sinalhan and Aplaya and in portions of Tagapo, Ibaba, Kanluran, Malusak, Market Area and Caingin. This type of soil is one of the most productive in the Laguna Province where a variety of crops, especially vegetables, can be grown profitably.

Landforms

Occur along the lakeshore areas. Fluctuations of lake waters along this edge of the municipality have dictated its land formation and vegetative cover.  Situated along the lakeshore are Sinalhan, Aplaya and Caingin. Portions of the Market Area and Ibaba are considered lacustrine as well.

Consist of higher and more stable flood plains on level to nearly level terrain formed by alluviation.  The soils are moderately well drained.  A majority of the barangays, including the Poblacion, may be found here.  These include Tagapo, Kanluran, Malusak, Labas, Dila, Dita, Pooc and portions of the Market Area, Ibaba, Pulong Sta. Cruz, Malitlit and the lakeside barangays.

Are moderately dissected piedmont plains with the topography of undulating to rolling. Steep side slopes may be found along dissections and rivers.  Such a formation is found in Don Jose and Sto. Domingo along with portions of Pulong Sta. Cruz and Malitlit.

Climate

Mean annual temperature is 27.6ºC and is relatively cool due to the site’s elevation and favourable airshed condition. The warmest month is May with an average of 30.0ºC while the coolest month is January with an average temperature of 25.0ºC.

Average relative humidity, the measure of the moisture content of the atmosphere is 80% in Santa Rosa. This makes the city fairly cooler than the Metropolitan Manila area where average relative humidity exceeds 81.0%.

Northeasterly winds prevail during the months of October through February. Winds come from the southeast during March and April. Southerly winds prevail during May while from June through September southwesterly winds prevail. The average speed of winds is 5 kilometres per hour.

Annual average rainfall is notably 1,950 millimetres. The maximum rainfall occurs in October while minimum rainfall is gauged at 2 millimetres. Though the municipality is located in a region subject to typhoons, Santa Rosa is hardly affected due to protection from the outlying mountain areas.

Air Quality

The city has not yet formulated an Air Quality Management Framework. The CENRO plans to prepare an air quality management action plan to address air pollution problems, reduce emission of air pollutants from stationary and mobile sources, and protect the health of its people. In 2016, the city will start to monitor ambient air quality through the installation of the ambient air quality monitoring station to be donated by the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB).

Geologic Hazards

Flood

The floodplains of the city comprise a total area of 302 hectares. Situated in this zone are Sinalhan, Aplaya and Caingin, and portions of Tagapo, Ibaba, Labas, Pooc, Dila and Dita.

Slight seasonal run-off flooding is characterized by accumulated shallow run-off flood, which subsides within a short period ranging from a few hours to three (3) days. This occurs in low to moderately low flood plains situated in Kanluran, Malusak and Ibaba. Floods in these areas are due to run off accumulation coming from surrounding elevated areas, low physiographic positions, poor infiltration, permeability characteristics and drain ability outlet.

Moderate seasonal flooding is characterized by more frequent and deeper run-off water. It takes a week to a few months for water to subside. This condition is observed along the lakeshore in Caingin, Aplaya and Sinal han and in the adjacent northeastern portion of Ibaba, Market Area and Tagapo. These areas serve as the catchment of water coming from the upland areas and are characterised by poor drain ability outlets and very low infiltration and hydraulic conductivity.

When flash flood occurs, many areas in the city can be potentially affected (Figure 4- 6). These include barangays Sinalhan, Aplaya, Caingin, Market Area, Ibaba, Malusak, Kanluran, Labas, Tagapo, Pooe, Macabling, Balibago, Dila, Dita and Pulong Sta. Cruz. Among these areas, lakeshore barangays of Sinalhan, Aplaya and Caingin are most vulnerable to flash floods and could submerge in floodwaters from Laguna de Bay.

The worst flooding events recorded in the city were during Typhoon Maring and during the southwest monsoon or Habagat in 2013, wherein 16 out of 18 barangays were affected by flash floods. Only barangays Sto. Domingo and Don Jose were not flooded. The overflow of water from the Laguna de Bay contributed significantly to flooding as the water level rose to 13.8 meters due to heavy rainfall.

Floodwaters remained for two (2) to three (3) months in the lakeshore barangays of Sinalhin, Caingin and Aplaya. The deepest flood level reached to almost one (1) meter in Barangay Tagapo. River walls in barangays Macabling and Tagapo were badly damaged during these flood events.

Earthquake

The province of Laguna can be affected by earthquakes given the presence of the West Valley Fault which traverses a north-south direction. The fault is disrupted by a number of minor steep faults along its course that is reflective of the volcanic activity relative to the area. Earthquake is a hazard in Santa Rosa as the West Valley Fault traverses Barangay Sto. Domingo. 

Liquefaction

Several areas in the city are susceptible to liquefaction (Figure 4-7). According to US Geological Survey (USGS), “liquefaction takes place when loosely packed, water­logged sediments at or near the ground surface lose their strength in response to strong ground shaking.” This can cause major damage in buildings and other structures during earthquakes. Barangays Sinalhan, Aplaya, Market Area, Kanluran, Ibaba, Malusak and Caingin are highly susceptible to liquefaction. 8arangays Tagapo and Labas have moderate susceptibility to liquefaction, while Pooc have moderate to high susceptibility. Areas of low susceptibility include barangays Macabling, Balibago, Dila and Dita.

Contact Us

Address
J.P Rizal BLVD. Brgy. Malusak
City of Santa Rosa Laguna , Philippines 4026 
Local Number(049)530-0015(LOCAL 0)
City of Santa Rosa Laguna, Manila Line
(02) 8519-4024